Which consumer population in the system below would probably have the least energy available to it?


41. What does evolutionary fitness measure? A) physical health of individuals B) population size and dispersion C) relative reproductive success within a population D) longevity of a population

42. Which one of the following statements is true? A) Natural selection works on variation already present in a population. B) Natural selection works on non-heritable traits. C) Individuals evolve through natural selection. D) Organisms evolve structures that they need.

43. In the soil, some ______ convert nitrogen to a form that can be used by plants.

A) protists B) animals C) protozoans D) prokaryotes

44. What type of interspecific interaction is described by a small fish that eats

parasites from mouths of larger fish? A) mutualism B) herbivory C) pollination D) cannibalism

45. Antibiotic resistance is an example of what type of evolution?

A) Allopatric. B) Microevolution. C) Gene pool magnification D) Macroevolution.

46. Biomedical researchers study species as disparate as worms, fruit flies,

mice, zebrafish, or rhesus monkeys to understand our genes, and even our diseases. Why? A) Because these species have many inherited features that are very similar to

our own. B) Because these species are all prokaryotes, and therefore their genes are

99.9% identical to one another. C) Because they make up an interconnected food web when bacteria are added. D) Because rhesus monkeys gave us the Rh+ factor when they bit our ancestors.


47. Consider the following food chain: A barn owl eats a shrew. This shrew has eaten a grasshopper. The grasshopper has eaten the leaves of a clover plant and a maple tree. What organisms are on the first trophic level? A) the barn owl B) the shrew C) the grasshopper D) the barn owl, the shrew and the grasshopper E) the clover plant and maple tree

48. Water moves from land to the atmosphere through _____.

A) precipitation only B) transpiration only C) transpiration and evaporation D) evaporation and precipitation

49. Which of the following is not a result of global warming?

A) changes in the breeding seasons of some species. B) decreasing sea levels. C) melting permafrost. D) shifts in the ranges of some species.

50. Which of the following are not examples of renewable resources?

A) Biofuels produced from plants or plant-derived by-products such as crop wastes.

B) Power supplied by human labor or livestock. C) Fertilizers made from animal manure and composted plants. D) Metal, cement, and glass, made using mined materials.

51. According to the logistic growth model, what happens to a population when the size of the population reaches carrying capacity? A) The growth rate remains unchanged. B) The growth rate begins to decrease in size. C) The population crashes. D) The growth rate is zero.

52. In an ideal, unlimited environment, what shape does a population’s growth

curve most closely resemble? A) S B) / C) ∧ D) ∪

53. Non-native species can influence biological communities by ______. A) preying upon native species B) competing with native species for resources C) reducing biodiversity D) doing all of the above

54. An example of a mutualism is ______.

A) herbivory B) cryptic coloration in snakes C) the relationship between unicellular algae and corals D) the relationship between voles and sparrows, which use some of the same

resources 55. Populations of two coexisting species are both tertiary consumers in a

community. What relationship may exist between these two organisms? A) predation B) mutualism C) commensalism D) competition E) meiosis

56. A _______ species exerts a particularly strong influence on an ecosystem

out of proportion to its size or abundance; its decline or extinction can cause a cascade of future extinctions within an ecosystem. A) commensal B) keystone C) trophic C) pelagic E) groundwater

57. Which consumer population in the system below would probably have the least energy available to it?

A) Clover B) Toad C) Aphid D) Ladybug E) Sunlight

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